# Exploring the Intersection of Quantum Computing and Artificial Intelligence

Amid rising data volumes, many companies are looking to artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to help increase efficiencies and detect problems.

But quantum AI offers a new level of performance that could greatly enhance those capabilities.

It works on a different basis than classical computers, with quantum bits – called qubits – that can hold multiple states rather than the binary one or zero of standard computer bits.

**Quantum Computing and Artificial Intelligence**

Machine learning, which allows Alexa and Siri to parse your words and self-driving cars to navigate traffic, could be accelerated using quantum computers. This is because these models often need to process large amounts of data, which can be time-consuming on conventional computers.

Quantum computers work differently than traditional machines and rely on the principles of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and entanglement. In classical computing, a switch can only be in a position of either 1 or 0 but a quantum computer uses qubits that can have a range of positions on a spectrum at the same time, exponentially increasing computational power with each additional qubit.

However, integrating quantum computing into existing AI frameworks and infrastructure is complex. It will require modifying algorithms and hardware to take advantage of the technology and will introduce new security risks if not implemented properly. As such, MSPs should start educating themselves on this emerging field to ensure they’re ready to offer advice on the right quantum computing solution for their clients’ needs.

**Quantum Computing and Machine Learning**

As the quantum computing and machine learning sectors evolve, we have seen a number of significant milestones. Google has demonstrated a quantum computer simulating a chemical reaction, while several large corporate entities are investing in quantum hardware and startups.

While conventional computers use bits to represent information (either a 0 or a 1), quantum machines utilize qubits which exist in an equal superposition of both a 0 and a 1. This allows them to process multiple simulations simultaneously and to make the most accurate calculations in a shorter amount of time.

This has enabled quantum computers to perform calculations that classical computers can’t, such as factoring prime numbers. This could have significant societal implications. For example, a medical board would be able to more quickly evaluate different treatment options for a patient. The same is true for many other complex problems in the business world, such as analyzing data or optimizing systems. Often, these tasks require the simulation of multiple scenarios and a resulting statistical analysis.

**Quantum Computing and Deep Learning**

Machine learning is a broad field that encompasses many different algorithms, including neural networks and deep learning. As such, it’s expected that quantum computing will help to accelerate this type of artificial intelligence.

The inherent entanglement property of quantum computers could make them much faster at data classification, and it’s been suggested that this would lead to a substantial performance boost for some machine learning models. Another possibility is that quantum computers could use the prepare-and-measure method to efficiently train a deep restricted Boltzmann machine, reducing the training time by as much as an order of magnitude compared to conventional methods.

This research is still in its early stages, but it points to a future where quantum computers could greatly enhance the ability of machine learning algorithms to process large amounts of data quickly and accurately. This is a potential game-changer for the AI industry, and it’s important that CIOs keep their fingers on the pulse of this developing technology.

**Quantum Computing and Neural Networks**

The success of machine learning (ML) — particularly deep neural networks (NNs) — has revolutionized numerous industries. But these technologies have become increasingly complex, requiring ever-larger amounts of memory and energy for training. And as Moore’s law falters, we are facing a looming limit to their computational power5.

The underlying reason for this bottleneck is quantum mechanics: Each additional qubit doubles the computing power of a NN. To illustrate, a coin flipping experiment shows that more heads and tails can be simultaneously represented when a coin is entangled with its sister coin.

Fortunately, research is underway on ways to solve this problem by harnessing the power of quantum mechanics. Many recent studies have explored a variety of methods for building a “quantum NN,” and some have even achieved impressive performance on noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices. But none of these attempts directly confronts the fundamental incompatibility between NNs and QC. Specifically, they do not allow neurons in a NN to share the outputs of the neurons in previous layers.